A Model to Reject Relativity!

Let’s see if we can establish a common ground of understanding by analyzing a landmark experiment that is almost a century old, a crucial part of modern navigational technology, but without anything like common agreement in theory .. the Sagnac eXperiment.(SagnacX).

From this analysis will arise a conceptual model, proven by natural testing, that rejects relativity and points to a familiar absolute frame for measuring motion and a universal background as the arena in which all events occur - the EM aether.

Navigation Guide

Start with the Background reading section (left column).

In the topics section, the Fizeau and Sagnac experiments then provide motivation for the ALFA model and Consequences .

Tests supporting and extending ALFA predictions are the Michelson-Morely, Michelson-Gale, Foucault, Aether motion, and Galaev tests.

Claims to refute ALFA are covered by the Aberration, Airy and Parallax topics.

Saturday, February 26, 2011

Absolute Time

Absolute Time

Newton had an abstract concept of absolute space and time, though neither could be defined concretely for measurement.  Does the absolute space frame of the ALFA model have a corresponding well-defined specification of absolute time… capable of being measured?
The conditions for having an absolute time-keeper are:
·         Global synchronization
·         Universal accessibility across the world
·         Immunity from environmental changes
·         Stable
·         Autonomous operation
There is really only one clock that fills all these slots – the most ancient of time-keepers, the heavenly procession of the stars – astronomical time - star time!  Along with the lab or ECEF frame in space, stellar motion  provides  a suitable universal master clock in the time domain.
Clones of the master clock – or slave clocks – can be used just as now, as long as they are monotonic and can be scaled to the master clock in the heavens.    This resolves the issue of time dilation, but there are other hurdles to consider….
Astronomical time based on periodic celestial motion was the scientific standard chronometer – until replaced about 50 years ago by atomic time, using nuclear EM vibrations in atomic clocks.   This was based on the need for higher precision timing in technology.
But atomic timing had several inherent technical problems. Atomic clocks are subject to drift at variable rates and to jump ahead or backwards sporadically. Neither effect is predictable.  The atomic clock will not keep its frequency for unknown reason. It can change its frequency within one week, according to the Haferle-Keating experiment.  An atomic clock could run erratically - faster this week and slower next week then back to faster again. Time must be independent from all the tools we use to measure it.
The term ‘master atomic clock’ is in fact a misnomer; a group of clocks are used and the actual time is decided by vote – by seeing what time most clocks agree on!  Atomic clocks are subject to environmental changes on Earth, not all of which are known or can be compensated for. 
Cosmic time is free of local influences and is truly universal, being accessible anywhere on Earth. 
Once atomic time was the standard, astronomical events, like the completion of a year, had to be adjusted to agree with the new standard. Atomic time was found to differ from star time by a fraction of a second every year.  The discrepancy is detected as the difference between atomic (EM) clocks and the sidereal year, measured by stellar periods - the astronomical/gravity clock. So the practice of occasionally adding a leap second to the calendar year was introduced,   as the astronomical time based on gravity seemed to be running slower than the electromagnetic time based on atomic transitions.  See http://www.iers.org/ ; http://hpiers.obspm.fr/eop-pc/ ;http://hpiers.obspm.fr/icrs-pc/
Now the cosmic clocks would agree with the earthly clocks (instead of vice versa in the ALFA model!). The leap seconds were cited as proof that the Earth is slowing down… instead of the equally valid conclusion that EM atomic frequencies were increasing.
In the heliocentric mainstream model the apparent slowing of stellar rotation was attributed to the actual slowing of the Earth’s rotation by tidal friction, the stars, of course, being fixed.  And, of course,  the geocentric ALFA model  says the Earth is not moving at all, making its slowdown an impossibility.

To resolve this conflict let’s look at the method for determining anomalies in the Earth’s ‘rotation’. …. Very Long Baseline Interferometry(VLBI).
Support for changing back to star time comes from an unlikely source…. the Pioneer 10,11 anomaly, 1972 – 2004. The Ranada-Tiemblo explanation covers the annual leap-secs as well as the Pioneer anomaly; probably also other phenomena that we haven't recognized yet.
Pioneer anomaly

Pioneer Anomaly

Pioneer 10,11 anomaly, 1972 – 2004
The anomaly consists of a frequency blue drift of the radio signals from the Pioneer 10 and 11, detected in the microwave signal of the Pioneer 10 and other spaceships by Anderson and manifested  by a residual Doppler shift that increases linearly with time.  At first attributed to a small constant acceleration sunward, the drift is uniformly changing at ~ (5.99 ± 0.01) ×10-9 Hz/s, effective from ~20 to 70 AU from the Sun.
After 35 years the anomaly is still unexplained, yet very well-defined and said to be possibly new physics.
Ranada and Tiemblo have shown that the Pioneer and Earth flyby anomalies can be due to a difference in the temporal rate of atomic/EM clocks and celestial/gravity clocks, an inherent difference in EM/atomic time and astronomical/gravity time. Atomic time was use in communication with the Pioneer probes for navigation while the trajectory was plotted using a Newtonian/gravitational model.  See the Pioneer anomaly as a quantum cosmological effect:  http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.1904
They have measured the Doppler shifts of receding galaxies with atomic time and compared them with gravitational theory based on star time with the Friedmann equation – a Hubble law effect.
Are there two separate but coupled time bases and aethers- gravity and EM?  A question that merits in-depth analysis.
 Stars                                 Atoms
The anomaly is an apparent acceleration, not a real one, caused by a progressive desynchronization of the astronomical and the atomic clock-times, after a prior synchronization.  The desynchronization could be caused by a coupling between the gravitational aether and the EM aether. The coupling necessarily exists between gravity and EM aether since both pervade the universe.
Since gravitational theory uses star time and the Pioneer observers use atomic time (devices based on quantum physics), this desynchronization necessarily causes a discrepancy.  The observed velocity of the spaceship is smaller than the predicted one, in such a way that the Pioneer seems to lag behind its expected position.
An adiabatic acceleration of light, and a small acceleration of the Pioneer towards the Sun could be mistaken the one for the other, because they do have the same fingerprint: a blue shift.
It turns out that the observational effects of a universal adiabatic acceleration of light and of an extra acceleration towards the Sun of a spaceship would be the same: a blue shift increasing linearly in time, precisely what was observed. The phenomenon would be due to a cosmological acceleration of the proper time of bodies with respect to the coordinate time.
It is argued by Ranada and Tiemblo that the permittivity and permeability of empty space are decreasing adiabatically, and the light is accelerating as a consequence of the progressive attenuation of the EM aether.  The chronic inability to unify gravity and EM gives support to this fundamental difference in time between these two natural forces. This proposal gives exactly the same results for radar ranging observations as standard physics and does not conflict with any established law.
 Astronomical time is defined by celestial periodic motion, while atomic time is founded on the oscillations of atomic systems. The effect is the relative march of the atomic clock of the detectors with respect to the astronomical clock of the orbit. An unavoidable coupling between gravitation and EM aether causes a progressive desynchronization of the astronomical and atomic clock-times  and the observed velocity to be  smaller than predicted - a deceleration.
Final notes:
·         These two clocks could be different in principle - ticking at different rates - since they are based on different physical laws, time is more philosophical than physical, and we lack a unified theory of gravitation and quantum EM. 
·         Astronomical time is never used to measure EM interactions, which may explain why the coupling effect has escaped ection to date .
·         Anderson et. al. have assumed that the Pioneer acceleration is directed Sunward, but the direction cannot be distinguished from Earthward, an artifact of the transmission direction. The Sun and Earth subtend less than a degree at Jupiter’s distance. 
·         Aren’t satellite periods also affected by the different time bases?
Yes, but the time delta is only a second every one or two years – the leap second of the IERS.
The slowing of the Earth’s rotation – which the leap second is meant to correct - is thus an illusion created by the difference in GI and EM chronometry.  This is a major paradigm shift which surely deserves more attention – the Earth’s rotation is not only constant – the constant is zero(0)!
·         If gravity and EM have a fundamental temporal difference – a different heartbeat - that can never be unified,  the unification researchers  should be told.  After all, this is the goal of the GUT, TOE and String theories.  
·         The divergence of gravity and EM clocks seen in the Pioneer anomaly is apparent in other contexts.


The VLBI details:   
·         uses a radio quasar as source
·         longer wavelength than optical means poor resolution
·         distances to target quasars is unknown - see Halton Arp’s refutation of the deep-space quasar contention
·         multiple array antennas have individual atomic clocks which introduces independent random errors.
Radio astronomy VLBI uses a single quasar source as reference source for a multiple array antenna system!  So the projected motions of Earth are based on the motion of one(1) star! ( geodetic VLBI applications use multiple sources.)  The motions detected by VLBI’s single object are attributed to the Earth which is assumed to be rotating. In GC systems any motion must be external- that is, in the heavens.
Mainstream  VLBI uses HC and special relativity models to correct for the Earth’s orbital speed of 30 km/s.  This actually introduces errors such as receiver aberration, Lorentz length contractions and dilation of the atomic clock time. Also corrections are made for the elliptic ‘orbit’ of the Earth, the gravity field of the Moon, long term polar motion, precession and nutation. 
The GC model makes no such ‘corrections’. 
To synchronize remote stations, the Earth is often considered to be temporarily at rest, for a fixed time.  Imagine that - the Earth at rest! Sometimes the change is permanent by using the ECI (Earth Centered Inertial ) reference system, which fixes the stars in the Earth’s aether system, not the lab frame. To eliminate gravity effects on the signal, the SSBC (Solar System BaryCentric) frame is used. But there’s a small problem here – no one has tested that this is true, or that the SSBC is properly located by using observations in that frame…. as the scientific method requires.
The VLBI receiving antennae on the Earth’s surface are definitely moving in the SSBC frame, so complex transformations must be used to convert GC ground station data into the preferred frame of the SSBC (preferred frame?? – doesn’t that violate relativity dogma?  …. Be quiet and read your Einstein.)
Proper stellar motion is the apparent(?) motion of a star relative to its neighbors.   But a star’s local neighborhood is without depth perception … defined  as  stars within a certain angle of the target, while they may be trillions of miles away in reality!
The definition makes a patchwork of the sky where some areas are considered not moving and others as moving, even though they may contain a few common stars! The logical conflict is – as usual – ignored.
More problems - The rotation models published by standard agencies - like the IERS and the GFSC – are different!
After all these corrections, there’s no surprise that the quasar source appears to move in the VLBI network. The HC interpretation is that all the stars move like the target star….. and that’s  because the Earth changed its rotation!
In the reference at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VLBI , the very first sentence reveals the flaw in the VLBI network – a single target is used.   In the ALFA GC model, each star can have its own proper motion, driven by its local aether flow.  To detect individual motion with respect to its local neighborhood, at least two other stars (forming a triangle) should be used.  Separate stellar motion is detected then by any change in the triangle’s shape.   Using only one object as target will not distinguish whether the star has an anomalous rotation…. or the Earth.
To show that the Earth’s spin has changed slightly requires that all the stars show the same slight motion at the same time, since the source of the observed extra motion is the entire Earth.  This is a necessary but insufficient condition, since the star could all slow down at the same time, with the Earth being at rest.
The VLBI data for single sources as presently used is useless for determining where the extra motion resides, and so cannot discern whether the HC or GC model is correct.

Friday, January 7, 2011

Aether motion test

Aether motion testing
OWLS vs. TWLS     One Way Light Speed  vs.  Two Way Light Speed
We use the model of aetherists 150 years ago…. A boat (photon) moving in a river(moving aether)   or a plane in air currents simulates the interaction of photons and aether moving at speed v.    

A boat (# 2 above) can move at speed c in still water, so it moves downstream  at c + v and upstream at c – v.
Measurement of the roundtrip speed  along A-C-A  (TWLS) and assuming that only the speed can be measured (as in the M&MX) will not detect the aether speed  v, since (c + v)/2 + (c – v)/2  = c . Only an OWLS test will detect v.
Conclusion: All TWLS tests of light speed in parallel aether flows are worthless and claims of isotropy of c with high precision lasers are bogus.

Boat #1 heads straight across. The diagram as drawn is incorrect, as the boat would be deflected to the right(downstream) while crossing.   The diagram does show what to expect if the effect of the moving medium(water/aether) is ignored.

Above diagram at top shows how to head upstream in the water/aether  current to move straight across at a reduced speed of   c(1-v2/c2)1/2 , using the Pythagorean theorem.
The bottom shows the correct motion of #2 ; it predicts an observed stellar aberration angle as arc sin( v/c).   The value of v depends on the westward daily aether motion, the annual N-S motion of the ecliptic aether , and the elliptic  motion of the Sun around the Earth and the stars around the Sun.  See below

The speed of photons perpendicular to the aether current is   (c2 –v2)1/2 = c (1 –v2/c2)1/2.
It’s this change in c of order (v2/c2)  - due to the aether cross-current – that Michelson and Morely sought to measure.  
The aberration of light in a moving medium  was demonstrated by Jones in 1971
R V Jones 1971 J. Phys. A: Gen. Phys. 4 L1
The transverse 'Fresnel ether drag' experienced when light passes through a refracting medium moving at right angles to the original direction of the light, and confirmed indirectly by Airy's water- filled telescope experiment, has been observed directly. A change in rotation speed from 600 to 1800 rpm of a glass disc produced a transverse displacement of about 1.5*10-6 mm in a light beam passing twice through the disc. This agrees with the Fresnel formula to within the 10% accuracy of the experiment.

Longitudinal drag (above left) occurs when light passes parallel ( c+v) or antiparallel(c-v).
Transverse drag ( above right)  entrains the photons sideways at an angle = arc sin(v/c) .

The dashed line is the light path through the glass at rest into detector D . The solid line is the path with rotation omega .


This is the angular shift Jones saw when the glass disk’s speed was increased by 1200 rpm. 

Conclusion:   Stellar aberration is caused by the dragging of light by the transverse motion of aether rotation around the Earth.

Wednesday, December 22, 2010

MIc-Gale, E-W signal delay,GPS timing

Michelson-Gale 1925

The Mic-GaleX used a large scale version of the Sagnac apparatus to attempt detection of the Earth’s rotational speed , which would decrease with latitude(below, left)   

Counter-rotating half beams were sent around a 1.2 mile perimeter in an Illinois field(above, right) .  There should be a phase difference arising from the difference in rotation speed between the north and south leg, where v1 > v2.  
The result indicated a difference corresponding to a 24 hour eastward rotation, which Mic-Gale interpreted as the Earth’s rotation, ignoring the possible rotation of aether rotating westward around an Earth at rest.

Result:     SoL =  c + v(24 hr rotation) =  c + r(omega)

The Sagnac result eliminated an Earth rotation, so this experiment supported the aether wind’s rotation that the Foucault Pendulum also detected.
Conclusion: The Earth has a free-moving autonomous aetherosphere that rotates westward at every latitude in 24 hours.

E-W radio signal delay

Radio signals sent west from New York to San Francisco arrive sooner than signals in the opposite direction, because the aether wind boosts westbound signals and delays eastbound ones(above).   The conclusion is reinforced by sending signals back and forth between NY and SF via the North Pole…. There’s no difference in transit time, because the signals move at right angles to the aether flow.

GPS timing error
GPS signals having a component in the E-W direction are affected by the aether wind now being studied.
The error compensation in the GPS calculations correlates with the 24 hr aether wind. It is called the Sagnac correction, which is technically a misnomer.  The SagnacX change in SoL was generated by mass motion dragging the aether around it.  The aether wind affecting the GPS signaling is a natural free-flowing aether current, like the air current known as the jet stream.
In the diagram above, the Mic-GaleX is shown on the surface, while the GPS satellite communication signals pass through the space above the ground. The same result for aether flow is found. (The Earth’s spin East should be replaced by aether wind West in the diagram.)
Here the aether is self-propelled, independently circulating around the Earth without any mass motion drag. 

Conclusion:  there are four tests (at least) which show the Earth is surrounded by a non-entrained independent aether wind, blowing everywhere westward in 24 hours .

Michelson-Morley - MMX

M&MX - 1886

Both a daily and annual periodic change in aether direction is forecast, based on the HC model.  The  annual change is due to the orbital speed of the Earth and is 30 times greater than the equatorial spin.  

The aberration boat model can be conceptually transferred to comparing the motion of a photon up/down an aether stream with motion cross-stream. In the diagram above a beam split into 2 half beams at a right angle and then compared for a phase difference when combined on the interferometer screen.  See below for a typical fringe pattern.

 The result was equivalent to a speed of ~ 5 kms, about 15% of the expected orbital speed of 30 km/s.
The disappointment was reflected in the summarizing term – a ‘null’ result. 

Box plots from the Michelson–Morley experiment

The experimental error analysis of 5 runs shows that the M&MX SoL average was always greater than c, and only one set of error ranges overlapped the value of c.

Although this result is consistent with an Earth and an aether approximately at rest, this option was not listed among the four options for interpretation given in Michelson’s conclusion.

The search for the aether effectively ended with Einstein’s paper on SR in 1905. Albert E said no aether was needed, while Albert M ignored the Earth and aether at rest!

Note: this experiment is small-scale and low precision; the use of transverse flow means the accuracy is of
      second order  ~ (v/ c)2  

Conclusion: …. the Earth is at rest and the surface aether speed is zero.  

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Sagnac test - the key exp.

Sagnac  1913

In the SagnacX an interferometer that detects the overlapping pattern of 2 counter-rotating light beams resulted in a measured Speed of Light (SoL) that was the usual light speed c plus or minus the rim speed of the spinning platform, v. 

The light beam was split into CW and CCW paths that combined again at the interferometer detector for fringe measurement; the entire apparatus was mounted on a turntable.
Sagnac found that the SoL was c when the speed of the rotor in the lab frame was zero.
But when the rotor’s edge speed was v, the SoL was c +/- v.

When the platform is at rest - left diagram - the CW w1 and CCW w2 beam travel the same distance in the same time. But when the platform spins CW - right diagram - the co-rotating w1 beam travels a greater distance than the counter-rotating w2 beam, in the same time.  If the photons were replaced with human runners, the result would be the same - the CCW runner would win the race.

In SR the SoL for either beam is said  to be c in either the lab or rotor frame, whether the rotor spins or not.  
In the rotor frame , the light beam should  see no rotation, because of co-rotation of the whole optical bench… source, mirrors and film are on the turntable. The measurements are being made in the rest frame of the apparatus which is only rotating in the lab frame. Relativity says the SoL should be c, ......

but Sagnac measures     SoL = c +/-  v…..

 The SoL  is anisotropic -  it is not c in the rotating frame!

The Sagnac model was like coffee stirred by a spoon in the center... the motion spreads out inside the cup.
He considered that the turntable rotation dragged or entrained the aether in the space around it, at the same speed (full dragging) as the rotor, v.  The SoL change was due to the motion of the aether in the path of the light beam, either boosting it (+ v) for counter-rotation or reducing it (- v) for co-rotation.

He then concluded that the SoL was independent of the source speed, and that an entrained aether was detected, explaining the unexpected results.... unexpected, that is, to relativists.

Incredible as it may sound, although the SagX had found that counter-rotating light beams travel at c +/- v, relativists actually delude themselves that the Sagnac change in SoL is consistent with SR! Their idol - Einstein himself - chose to ignore the results that contradicted his 1905 paper – even 40 years later he had no adequate response. Einstein was quite aware of Sagnac’s work, but chose to ignore the refutation and hope the Sagnac result would be forgotten. But for its use in optical navigation and GPS, it would be.
Summary - Sagnac analysis of light speed:
Note: SagnacX  is  first order  in  v/c.

The Sagnac result in transparent dielectric having index of refraction n is
SoL = c/n  +/-   v/n2
We simplify the analysis by considering only the fast co-rotating beam, the plus sign, and suppress the factors involving n. (The full expression can be restored at the end.)
So SoL is reduced to Sol = c + v.

Frame:             LAB     ROTOR
SoL =                c + v       c + v   (for the co-rotating beam)

Note: the lab frame measurement of c + v was not recorded by Sagnac
but reported by Dufour & Prunier in 1938.

Conclusion: light speed is independent of both source and detector speed and
the aether was being dragged along at the speed of the rotor.