**ALFA model - discovery of an Absolute Lab frame and a Flexible Aether medium**Let’s see if we can establish a common ground of understanding by analyzing a landmark experiment that is almost a century old, a crucial part of modern navigational technology, but without anything like common agreement in theory .. the Sagnac eXperiment.(SagnacX). From this analysis will arise a conceptual model, proven by natural testing, that rejects relativity and points to a familiar absolute frame for measuring motion and a universal background as the arena in which all events occur - the EM aether.

An important predecessor to Sagnac was the Fitzeau experiment, which tested the Fresnel theory of aether drag in water flow.

In 1851 Fizeau found that Fresnel’s dragging factor applied to moving water. The speed of light, SoL, is changed by the moving medium’s speed and refractive index…

**SoL = c/n + v(1-1/n**

^{2})For details, see

*Fizeau test of drag*

http://alfachallenge.blogspot.com/search/label/Fizeau%20test%20of%20drag

Performed just 8 years after Einstein disposed of the need for aether in the 1905 paper on special relativity, the SagnacX was intended to show that aether existed, and Sagnac thought he had done just that. He had, indeed, and much more that he didn’t realize then.

Three years from now will mark a century since Sagnac performed this critical test of relativity. Despite its key practical use in modern navigation, its theoretical basis is still far from established.

see Sagnac test : http://alfachallenge.blogspot.com/search/label/Sagnac%20test%20the%20key%20exp.

**The ALFA model:**

Two metaphysical premises are based on the Fresnel test results:

**1) Light speed in aether is always c**(c/n in transparent dielectric) , so

Vph,ae =c where ph represents a photon . ae is aether

This is a key definition of aether’s properties.

**2) Galilean velocity addition is valid.**

The speed of a photon is its speed in aether plus the aether's speed in any reference frame x.

**SoL = Vphoton,aether + Vaether,reference system**simplifies to

SoLx = Vph,ae + Vae,x = c + Vae,x where x = the frame name

**Predictions of SR, Ritz and aether models vs. Sagnac results**For all models, the measured rim speed of the rotor is v, so

**3) Vrot,lab = v**

**SoL for NO aether:**

Special Relativity:Axiom 1 is Vx,y = -Vy,x and axiom2 is Vph,x = c

Special Relativity:

Predicts SoL in lab and on rotor = c ….. X X

.....both disagree with the Sagnac results

This implies there must be a preferred frame in which

Vx,y <> -Vy,x !!

**Ritz ballistic:**predicts the source’s speed adds to the photon speed

Prediction: SoL on rotor = c X ..disagrees with Sagnac result

**SoL for aether theories:**

For all aether models : SoLx = Vph,ae + Vae,x and Vph,ae =c

**Static/fixed aether :**Vae,lab = 0 and Vae,rot = 0

Prediction:

SoL in lab = Vph,ae + Vae,lab = c + 0 X both disagree with

SoL on rotor = Vph,ae + Vae,rot = c + 0 X the Sagnac results

Dynamic Aether: with full dragging, Vae,lab = v and Vae,rot = 0

Vx,y = -Vy,x …. Assume Poincare’ relativity is valid

Prediction:

SoL in lab = Vph,ae + Vae,lab = c + v This agrees with Sagnac

4) SoL on rotor = Vph,ae + Vae,rot = c + 0 ??

To agree with Sagnac , Vae,rot must equal v, not 0…

Then aether speed will equal v in both lab and rotor frame ??

How can that be ?

BUT ….let’s recall that special relativity was refuted, so

__Vx,y does NOT NECESSARILY equal -Vy,x in an absolute frame__!

So we now examine the effects of replacing relativity with absolutivity.

From premise 2, velocity analysis,

5) Vae,rot= Vae,lab + Vlab,rot

The graphical version of the vector analysis is shown above…

Now substitute 5) into 4) and use Vae,lab = v:

4) SoL on rotor = Vph,ae + (Vae,lab + Vlab,rot) must equal c + v

(the Sagnac result)

So SoL on rotor = c + v + Vlab,rot must equal c + v

Therefore, Vlab,rot must equal zero (0) !

In the rotating frame the lab must be at rest. !

If relativity were true, Vlab,rot would equal –v = -Vrot,lab…..

Since the rotor speed can be any v, we conclude that :

The lab is always at rest with respect to any rotating system, x,

which contains mass to entrain aether.

This now restricts the x frame to any rotating mass in the lab system.

ABSOLUTE REST THEOREM:

Vlab,x = 0 where x is any rotating frame on Earth.

The Earth is the absolute rotating frame sought by Newton in the water bucket exp. and rejected by Einstein.

Now, using 2), SoLx = c + Vae,lab + Vlab,x

Using the absolute rest theorem, SoLx = c + Vae,lab + 0, yielding

ABSOLUTE FRAME THEOREM:

Vx,y = Vx,lab using the absolute rest theorem.

The speed of light in any frame x:

SoLx = c + Vae,lab using the absolute frame theorem.

The SoL in any frame is c plus aether's speed in the lab/ECEF frame.

To review:

We started by taking –

1. SoLx = Vph,ae + Vae,x vector analysis

2. Vph,ae = c definition of aether

3. Vae,lab = v full rotor drag of aether

SoL = c + v for both lab and rotor

led to the conclusion that

A. Vlab,x = 0

B. Vx,y = Vx,lab

C. SoLx = c + Vae,lab

This exhibits sufficiency, that {1,2,3} => {A,B,C}

The premises imply the conclusion

To show necessity in addition, the implication must be reversed,

so that {A,B,C} => {1,2,3}

We assume {A,B,C} is true and try to prove that {1,2,3} must be true.

We start with C: SoLx = c + Vae,lab

By the Sagnac result

SoLx = c + v = c + Vae,lab

So

Vae,lab = v which is proof of #3.

Take Vph,ae = Vph,lab + Vlab,ae

= SoLlab – Vae,lab

Vph,ae = c + v – v = c using the Sagnac results.

This is proof of #2.

If the Sagnac results are true, then the ALFA model is true.

If the ALFA model is true then the Sagnac results are true.

Logically the two are equivalent, each being necessary and sufficient to explain the other.

Conclusion: Only the Absolute Lab(ECEF) frame with Flexible Aether model agrees with the

Sagnac results ….

(and with similar experiment types – Fresnel drag, M&MX, Wang FOC, Dufour&Prunier.)

For example, for the M&MX: Note: MMX is second order in (v/c)

^{2};Sagnac is first order in (v/c).

from the frame theorem : SoLlab = c + Vae,lab

from measured ‘null’ result of M&MX :

SoLlab = c + ~0 implies Vae,lab = 0

The aether speed is approximately zero at the Earth’s surface, so both the Earth and the surface aether speed are zero (within the M&MX precision limits).

For M&MX details, see http://alfachallenge.blogspot.com/search/label/Michelson-Morley%20-%20MMX

for the Michelson-Gale large-scale experiment:

from the frame theorem: SoLlab = c + Vae,lab

from Mic-Gale measured result: SoLlab = c + v

implies Vae,lab = v v = aether flow near the ground

For Mic-Gale details, see http://alfachallenge.blogspot.com/search/label/MIc-Gale

The final version of the ALFA model is :

SoL in aether axiom: Vph,ae = c Light speed in aether is always c

Vector speed addition axiom: SoL-x = Vphoton,aether + Vaether,lab Absolute Rest theorem: Vlab,x = 0 The lab/Earth is universally at rest

Absolute Frame theorem: SoLx = c + Vae,lab

So whatever entrainment frame x is used,

light speed only depends on aether speed in the lab frame

**Summary of discoveries**Does the aether exist? Yes

Is the aether rigid/static or flexible/dynamic ? flexible/dynamic

Is the measured speed of light an absolute constant? No

Is special relativity refuted by experiments? Yes

Is there a preferred reference frame? There must be, since relativity is invalid.

Is the aether the preferred reference frame? No – the aether is flexible, not fixed.

What is the absolute reference frame for motion measurement? The lab/ECEF frame.

Fresnel found that aether INSIDE matter is barely dragged by matter: Vae = v(1-1/n

^{2})

Sagnac found that aether OUTSIDE matter is almost fully dragged by matter: Vae = v/n

^{2}

**Quick review**

Sagnac - The SoL is:

• c + v for the co-rotating beam, in both lab and rotor frame.

• independent of source and detector motion,

BUT DEPENDENT ON AETHER motion.

1) By definition of aether, the SoL is Vph,ae = c in the aether frame

(c/n in a transparent dielectric)

2) SoL = Vph,x = Vph,ae + Vae,x = c + Vae,x ... simple vector addition

3) Vlab,x =0

4) SoL = Vph,x = Vph,ae + Vae,x = c + Vae,lab + Vlab,x = c + Vae,lab

5)The dynamic aether model predicts the entrained aether will have the

same speed as the rotor, as tested.

6) SoL does not equal c when aether is moving in the lab frame.

7) Vae,rot <> 0 from the Sagnac result, proving the rotor is not the preferred frame.

8) Vae,lab = v, same as the Sagnac result, proving the lab is the preferred reference frame.

--------

In this ALFA Challenge we solicit any responses that support or refute this SagnacX analysis, which concludes with the existence of a flexible/dynamic aether

and the identification of an absolute lab/ECEF coordinate system for measuring motion.

Please stick to objective evidence using the scientific method and logic,

as described in the Rules section.

Citing experimental proofs of relativity are futile, because logically inconsistent theories - like relativity -

can be used to prove anything is true. See the

*Googol axiom*section.

MS claim: Relativity predicts the correct results of all experiments.

Response: True. Also predicts different results for them.

For example:

There is an aether and there is not.

The traveling twins contradiction: A is older than B; B is older than A.

Once free of contradictions and restored to logical consistency the type of applied relativity must be stated. Like ice cream and quarks, relativity comes in several flavors.

See

*Relativity app survey*.

To disprove the ALFA model:

Do not raise issues that are ad hominem or irrelevant - focus on ALFA.

Do not use the Ptolemaic model as strawman; the neo-Tychonian universal model is our Best Current Thinking.

Do not ask for an explanation of every relativity variant possible –

the subject is ALFA, not SR.

If you want to know why relativity predicts every test,

- read Popper’s coverage of inconsistency - see the Googol axiom post.

- consider the conflicting beliefs under the umbrella name of relativity.

What you should do to test ALFA:

Apply the scientific method using testability and consistency.

Examine ALFA for contradictions in its premises, logic or conclusion.

or with experiments.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

References:

For an English translation of Sagnac’s experiment:

http://www.wbabin.net/historical/pprhst.htm#Sagnac

For the extended Sagnac tests done by Dufour and Prunier:

http://www.wbabin.net/pprhst.htm#Dufour

For the linear version of Sagnac, see the Wang FOC exp.

http://web.stcloudstate.edu/ruwang/GED_2005_MarApr_Wang.pdf

For the Sagnac result applied to electrons and neutrons, not photons, see

http://www.atomwave.org/rmparticle/ao%20refs/aifm%20refs%20sorted%20by%20topic/ifm%20demonstrations/borde1991.pdf