Newton had an abstract concept of absolute space and time, though neither could be defined concretely for measurement. Does the absolute space frame of the ALFA model have a corresponding well-defined specification of absolute time… capable of being measured?
The conditions for having an absolute time-keeper are:
· Global synchronization
· Universal accessibility across the world
· Immunity from environmental changes
· Autonomous operation
There is really only one clock that fills all these slots – the most ancient of time-keepers, the heavenly procession of the stars – astronomical time - star time! Along with the lab or ECEF frame in space, stellar motion provides a suitable universal master clock in the time domain.
Clones of the master clock – or slave clocks – can be used just as now, as long as they are monotonic and can be scaled to the master clock in the heavens. This resolves the issue of time dilation, but there are other hurdles to consider….
Astronomical time based on periodic celestial motion was the scientific standard chronometer – until replaced about 50 years ago by atomic time, using nuclear EM vibrations in atomic clocks. This was based on the need for higher precision timing in technology.
But atomic timing had several inherent technical problems. Atomic clocks are subject to drift at variable rates and to jump ahead or backwards sporadically. Neither effect is predictable. The atomic clock will not keep its frequency for unknown reason. It can change its frequency within one week, according to the Haferle-Keating experiment. An atomic clock could run erratically - faster this week and slower next week then back to faster again. Time must be independent from all the tools we use to measure it.
The term ‘master atomic clock’ is in fact a misnomer; a group of clocks are used and the actual time is decided by vote – by seeing what time most clocks agree on! Atomic clocks are subject to environmental changes on Earth, not all of which are known or can be compensated for.
Cosmic time is free of local influences and is truly universal, being accessible anywhere on Earth.
Once atomic time was the standard, astronomical events, like the completion of a year, had to be adjusted to agree with the new standard. Atomic time was found to differ from star time by a fraction of a second every year. The discrepancy is detected as the difference between atomic (EM) clocks and the sidereal year, measured by stellar periods - the astronomical/gravity clock. So the practice of occasionally adding a leap second to the calendar year was introduced, as the astronomical time based on gravity seemed to be running slower than the electromagnetic time based on atomic transitions. See http://www.iers.org/ ; http://hpiers.obspm.fr/eop-pc/ ;http://hpiers.obspm.fr/icrs-pc/
Now the cosmic clocks would agree with the earthly clocks (instead of vice versa in the ALFA model!). The leap seconds were cited as proof that the Earth is slowing down… instead of the equally valid conclusion that EM atomic frequencies were increasing.
In the heliocentric mainstream model the apparent slowing of stellar rotation was attributed to the actual slowing of the Earth’s rotation by tidal friction, the stars, of course, being fixed. And, of course, the geocentric ALFA model says the Earth is not moving at all, making its slowdown an impossibility.
To resolve this conflict let’s look at the method for determining anomalies in the Earth’s ‘rotation’. …. Very Long Baseline Interferometry(VLBI).
Support for changing back to star time comes from an unlikely source…. the Pioneer 10,11 anomaly, 1972 – 2004. The Ranada-Tiemblo explanation covers the annual leap-secs as well as the Pioneer anomaly; probably also other phenomena that we haven't recognized yet.